Food Allergies and Food Allergic Reactions

It has been estimated that out of a population of three hundred million, almost two percent of adults and six percent of children in the US suffer from food allergies of some type. According to data from the Mayo clinic, that translates into six million adults and eighteen million children who are allergic to various elements hiding away in regular foods that we all consume on a daily basis.

14 Types of Food Allergens

While some people may be allergic to or have an intolerance to various other ingredients in food, there are 14 main allergenic foods that account for a large percentage of food allergic reactions.

  • Celery
  • Cereals that contain Gluten – Wheat and wheat products (such as spelt and Khorasan), Barley, Oats and Rye.
  • Crustacean Shellfish – Crabs, Crayfish, Lobsters, Shrimps and Prawns
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Lupin – Lupini Beans
  • Milk
  • Molluscs – Abalone, Clams, Mussels, Octopus, Oysters, Scallops and Squid
  • Mustard
  • Tree Nuts – Almonds, Brazil nuts, Cashews, Hazelnuts, Macadamia nuts, Pecans, Pistachios and Walnuts
  • Peanuts
  • Sesame Seeds
  • Soybeans
  • Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphites – if they are at a concentration of more than ten parts per million

The above are food sources from which many other ingredients and food proteins are derived.

FSA Explains: Food hypersensitivity

What Causes Food Allergies

As with any other hypersensitivity, food allergies happen when the immune system overreacts to an allergen. In this case, the allergens are typically dairy based products such as milk and cream, eggs, peanuts, shellfish and several other foods.

In response to contact or ingestion, the body releases an antibody called immunoglobulin E or IgE. This happens because it sees the food as a foreign invader rather than nutrition. The antibodies stimulate the release of histamine, prostaglandins and other compounds that produce the symptoms.

Food Allergies Symptoms

Symptoms of food allergies tend to be more extensive than those that mark other allergic reactions. Nasal congestion and watery eyes are possible. But they are more often accompanied or overwhelmed by hives (itchy red welts that form on the skin), swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, wheezing and even nausea and abdominal pain.

In severe cases anaphylactic shock can occur. Anaphylaxis is a systemic or overall body allergic reaction. It involves drastically lowered blood pressure, constricted airways leading to breathing difficulty, dizziness and other serious symptoms. It comes on quickly and, if left untreated, can sometimes cause death. As many as two hundred people die each year in the U.S. as a result of a severe allergic reaction to food.

In some cases, food allergy reactions are localized. Fresh fruits and vegetables cause some to experience tingling in the mouth. The cause is thought to be proteins similar to those found in ragweed pollen.

Food Allergies vs Food Intolerance

Differentiating between a food intolerance and food allergies requires a professional diagnosis by an allergist.

A skin prick test can frequently determine whether a person actually has an allergy to certain foods. The doctor takes an extract of the suspect substance and exposes the patient by inserting a small amount under the skin with a lancet. The skin is observed for about half an hour to note any swelling or itching in reaction to the extract.

A blood test may be warranted. This measures the amount of IgE produced in response to consuming the suspect food. But it is not always definitive.

Lactose intolerance, for example, is caused by the genetically induced lack of the digestive enzyme needed to safely process cow’s milk. The symptoms may be similar, but this is not an allergy.

Food Allergies Elimination Diet

Eliminating the troublesome food from the diet and environment is the first and best line of defense. Those with an allergy to eggs simply shouldn’t consume eggs or egg products. Those sensitive to peanuts and peanut dust can generally avoid coming into contact with it.

Since there is no cure yet for food allergies, avoidance is the best medicine. However, symptom relief is possible when accidents occur. Antihistamines are advisable.

It is also good to have on hand an EpiPen or similar device that allows allergy sufferers to inject a small amount of ephinephrine during an emergency. This can fend off any serious attack of anaphylaxis.